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Alma Chapter 11

Scripture Mastery

Alma 11-15 Alma and Amulek contend with the clever and wicked lawyer Zeezrom, and Zeezrom is eventually converted.

Alma 11:37 Amulek's teaching that no unclean thing can inherit the kingdom of heaven.

Alma 11:40 He shall take upon him the transgressions of those who believe on his name, and salvation cometh to none else .

Alma 11:42-43 There is a death which is called a temporal death; and the death of Christ shall loose the bands of this temporal death.

1 Now it was in the law of Mosiah that every man who was a judge of the law, or those who were appointed to be judges, should receive wages according to the time which they labored to judge those who were brought before them to be judged.

verse 1 "the law of Mosiah" This refers to the Nephite governmental system of judges established by Mosiah before his death.

verses 3-19 The following chart shows the relative monetary values of the currency probably throughout the land of Zarahemla:



Measure of Grain

Day's Wage for a Judge

































(Larry E. Dahl, "The Plan of Redemption-Taught and Rejected," Studies in Scripture, Volume 7, 1 Nephi to Alma 29, 318.)

John W. Welch has pointed out the similarities between Mosiah's measures of exchange and those of an ancient Babylonian law code, the Code of Eshnunna. The following initial provisions stand at the head of this ancient law code:

1 kor of barley [she'um] is priced at 1 shekel of silver;

3 qa of "best oil" are priced at 1 shekel of silver;

1 seah and 2qa of sesame oil are priced at 1 shekel of silver . . .

The hire for a wagon together with its oxen and its driver is 1 massiktum and 4 seah of barley. If it is paid in silver, the hire is one third of a shekel. He shall drive it the whole day (Martha T. Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor [Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995], 59; John W. Welch's "The Laws of Eshnunna and Nephite Economics," FARMS Update, Insights [December 1998]: 2).

Consider these parallels:

1. The basic legal form of these two texts is consistent. The standard phrasing "1 kor of barley is priced a 1 shekel of silver" resembles that in the Book of Mormon, "A senum of silver was equal to a senine of gold" (Alma 11:7).

2. The primary conversion in Babylonia was between silver and barley. Thus, precious metal and grain measures were convertible into each other. The law of Mosiah featured precisely the same conversion capability: the basic measure for either gold or silver was equated with "a measure of barley" (Alma 11:7).

3. In Babylonia the basic commodity valuation system allowed traders to deal in a variety of items, all convertible into silver or barley. Similarly, Mosiah's system covered transactions from silver into "a measure of every kind of grain" (Alma 11:7).

4. Both economic systems were announced by kings to have been instituted for similar reasons. The laws of Eshnunna began with a royal superscription that proclaimed this standardization as instrumental in establishing justice, eliminating enmity, and protecting the weak. Likewise, King Mosiah enacted his laws expressly to establish peace and equality in the land (see Mosiah 29:38; Mosiah 29:40).

5. The practical motivation behind the laws of Eshnunna seems to have been to undergird the rental market and to standardize values on daily wages and the computation of various damages and penalties. Similarly, a motivation for the economic part of King Mosiah's reforms was to provide a standard system under the new reign of judges for the payment of judges on a daily basis: "a senine of gold for a day, or a senum of silver" (Alma 11:3).

In enacting his law, as the Book of Mormon takes pains to tell us, King Mosiah "did not reckon after the manner of the Jews who were at Jerusalem" (Alma 11:4). Evidently he drew on some other system of weights and measures. Perhaps Mosiah obtained the legal form of his economic decree from the Mulekites, who had had contact with the Jaredites, who had left from Mesopotamia not long before the time of Eshnunna. Moreover, Mosiah's system is distinctively binary. That is, each unit of measure is half the size of the next large unit. Perhaps Mosiah found this binary manner of reckoning somewhere on the plates of brass, which, after all, were written in a type of Egyptian text. Indeed, as became known in the early twentieth century, the units in the ancient Egyptian grain measure were also binary in ratio (John W. Welch and J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon, [Provo, Utah: FARMS, 1999], chart 113). We cannot be sure how to explain the similarities between the laws of Mosiah and Eshnunna or between the Nephite and Egyptian grain measures, but this much can be said: Such similarities between the laws of Mosiah and Eshnunna and the Egyptian mathematical papyri (which were unknown in Joseph Smith's day) show yet another way in which the Book of Mormon presents specific details whose roots run unexpectedly deep in ancient societies.

2 Now if a man owed another, and he would not pay that which he did owe, he was complained of to the judge; and the judge executed authority, and sent forth officers that the man should be brought before him; and he judged the man according to the law and the evidences which were brought against him, and thus the man was compelled to pay that which he owed, or be stripped, or be cast out from among the people as a thief and a robber.

verse 2 "a thief and a robber" Please note the distinction between thief and robber, two terms which are essentially synonymous in our culture. See the commentaries for Mosiah 13:22 and 3 Nephi 3:12.

3 And the judge received for his wages according to his time-a senine of gold for a day, or a senum of silver, which is equal to a senine of gold; and this is according to the law which was given.

4 Now these are the names of the different pieces of their gold, and of their silver, according to their value. And the names are given by the Nephites, for they did not reckon after the manner of the Jews who were at Jerusalem; neither did they measure after the manner of the Jews; but they altered their reckoning and their measure, according to the minds and the circumstances of the people, in every generation, until the reign of the judges, they having been established by king Mosiah.

5 Now the reckoning is thus-a senine of gold, a seon of gold, a shum of gold, and a limnah of gold.

verse 5 It seems likely that these names for certain amounts of gold did not represent actual coins, but rather represented standard weights.

6 A senum of silver, an amnor of silver, an ezrom of silver, and an onti of silver.

7 A senum of silver was equal to a senine of gold, and either for a measure of barley, and also for a measure of every kind of grain.

verse 7 "a measure of barley" See the commentary for Mosiah 7:22. Obviously barley was a crop of primary importance to the Nephites.

8 Now the amount of a seon of gold was twice the value of a senine.

9 And a shum of gold was twice the value of a seon.

10 And a limnah of gold was the value of them all.

11 And an amnor of silver was as great as two senums.

12 And an ezrom of silver was as great as four senums.

13 And an onti was as great as them all.

14 Now this is the value of the lesser numbers of their reckoning-

15 A shiblon is half of a senum; therefore, a shiblon for half a measure of barley.

16 And a shiblum is a half of a shiblon.

17 And a leah is the half of a shiblum.

18 Now this is their number, according to their reckoning.

19 Now an antion of gold is equal to three shiblons.

20 Now, it was for the sole purpose to get gain, because they received their wages according to their employ, therefore, they did stir up the people to riotings, and all manner of disturbances and wickedness, that they might have more employ, that they might get money according to the suits which were brought before them; therefore they did stir up the people against Alma and Amulek.

verse 20 This verse explains the essence of why the entire legal system of Ammonihah was corrupt. A "suit" may be defined as an action taken to secure justice in a court of law. The influential and self-serving lawyers had ulterior motives in fomenting conflict and animosity. They stood to gain from any form of civil strife, enmity, or hostility.

"Now, it was for the sole purpose to get gain, because they received their wages according to their employ" Brother David E. Bokovoy ("Repetitive Resumption in the Book of Mormon," FARMS Update, no. 182, vol. 27, 2007) has pointed out that this phrase illustrates a common form of editorial activity utilized here in the book of Alma that is also found in the Bible. It is called repetitive resumption. Biblical scholarship has recognized this writing form only since the time of Joseph Smith.

Repetitive resumption refers to an editor's return to an original narrative following a deliberate interlude. Old Testament writers accomplished this by repeating a key word or phrase that immediately preceded the textual interruption. For example, in Johsua 1:7, Moses's successor, Joshua, counsels ancient Israel to be "strong and very courageous." This admonition is then followed by a mandate to continually meditate upon the "book of the law" (verse 8). Since the reference to the "book of the law" alters the focus of Joshua's account, most biblical scholars conclude that Joshua 1:8 represents a later editorial insertion. Directly following this interruption, the Hebrew redactor returns to the original narrative by restating the key words that immediately precede his textual interruption or insertion: "Have not I commanded thee? Be strong and of a good courage" (verse 9). Similar examples of this phenomenon have been identified throughout the Hebrew Bible.

Here in Alma 11:20, we see that the editor, presumably Mormon, has used repetitive resumption in just the same way. Mormon interrupts the account of Alma's confrontation with Zeezrom by interjecting an outline of the Nephite monetary system (verses 1-19). Prior to this insertion, the account reads, "Now the object of these lawyers was to get gain; and they got gain according to their employ" (Alma 10:32). After the editorial interruption that breaks the flow of the primary narrative, the editor returns to the original account by using repetitive resumption here in this verse: "Now, is was for the sole purpose to get gain, because they received their wages according to their employ." See another example of repetitive resumption in the Book of Mormon in Helaman 5:14.

This literary technique is significant not only because it supports the authenticity of the Book of Mormon (the technique had not yet been identified by biblical scholars in 1830) but also because it allows readers to identify the primary message that the original writers of the Book of Mormon wanted their audience to receive.

21 And this Zeezrom began to question Amulek, saying: Will ye answer me a few questions which I shall ask you? Now Zeezrom was a man who was expert in the devices of the devil, that he might destroy that which was good; therefore, he said unto Amulek: Will ye answer the questions which I shall put unto you?

22 And Amulek said unto him: Yea, if it be according to the Spirit of the Lord, which is in me; for I shall say nothing which is contrary to the Spirit of the Lord. And Zeezrom said unto him: Behold, here are six onties of silver, and all these will I give thee if thou wilt deny the existence of a Supreme Being.

verse 22 It is also not surprising that Zeezrom would offer Amulek money to recant his testimony. After all, Zeezrom was of the order of Nehor (commentary on Alma 8:9; Alma 14:16; Alma 15:15). Nehor had taught that priests and teachers ought to be popular, and that they ought not to labor with their hands. Rather they should be supported by the people (Alma 1:3). Thus Zeezrom was indoctrinated with the idea that the priests and teachers of his land were primarily profit motivated.

One onti of silver was equivalent to seven days' wages for a judge. Therefore six onties equaled a judges wages for forty-two days (see commentary for Alma 11:3-19).

23 Now Amulek said: O thou child of hell, why tempt ye me? Knowest thou that the righteous yieldeth to no such temptations?

verse 23 Amulek leaves no doubt as to who, he felt, was inspiring and motivating Zeezrom.

24 Believest thou that there is no God? I say unto you, Nay, thou knowest that there is a God, but thou lovest that lucre more than him.

verse 24 Amulek was inspired to be able to discern the mind of Zeezrom.

"thou lovest that lucre more than him" We might appropriately expand the definition of "lucre" to include all things of the world rather than simply money. Here then is the essence of this mortal trial. It is not sufficient to profess and even have some degree of love for the things of God. We must evidence in our lives that we love the things of God more than the things of the world. This is the spirit of sacrifice. See Ye Shall Know of the Doctrine, volume 3, chapter 17, The Law and Spirit of Sacrifice.

25 And now thou hast lied before God unto me. Thou saidst unto me-Behold these six onties, which are of great worth, I will give unto thee-when thou hadst it in thy heart to retain them from me; and it was only thy desire that I should deny the true and living God, that thou mightest have cause to destroy me. And now behold, for this great evil thou shalt have thy reward.

verse 25 Again, Amulek correctly discerns the mind and intentions of Zeezrom.

"for this great evil thou shalt have thy reward" Zeezrom's reward will come in the form of mental anguish and suffering over his sins (see Alma 1:46; Alma 12:1; Alma 12:7; Alma 14:6; Alma 15:3; Alma 15:5).

verses 26-33 In these verses Zeezrom engages Amulek in conversation. Zeezrom's hope is obviously to catch Amulek contradicting himself and expose him to the listening audience.

26 And Zeezrom said unto him: Thou sayest there is a true and living God?

27 And Amulek said: Yea, there is a true and living God.

28 Now Zeezrom said: Is there more than one God?

29 And he answered, No.

verse 29 Amulek's reference here is obviously only to Jehovah, the Lord Jesus Christ. Why did he not acknowledge the other two members of the godhead? Did he know about them? It seems certain that Amulek did understand the nature of the godhead as we understand it today (see the commentaries for verses 33 and 44). His emphasis that there is but one God might have been given to counter those who would worship many gods. This is the same spirit that is reflected in Deuteronomy 6:4: "Hear, O Israel: The Lord God is one Lord," and in Mark 12:29: "And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord." Amulek's statement about one "true and living God" is also similar to one given in the New Testament by Paul in a similar context: "We know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is none other God but one" (1 Corinthians 8:4).

30 Now Zeezrom said unto him again: How knowest thou these things?

31 And he said: An angel hath made them known unto me.

verse 31 Amulek refers to the ministrations of the angel to Alma and Amulek in the latter's home (Alma 10:10).

32 And Zeezrom said again: Who is he that shall come? Is it the Son of God?

verse 32 In this verse Zeezrom's motives become transparent. Amulek has stated that there is but one God (verse 29). Now Zeezrom wants him to say that the God who shall come and dwell among his people is the Son of God, thus implying that there are at least two Gods. To his listening audience this would constitute an inconsistency or contradiction.

33 And he said unto him, Yea.

verse 33 Amulek seems to fall into Zeezrom's trap. He acknowledges that the Savior who will come is the Son of God. It seems evident that Amulek, who is obviously a capable and bright individual, could easily perceive the direction in which Zeezrom was trying to lead him. Thus the verse provides evidence that Amulek did understand the relationship between God the Father and God the Son.

34 And Zeezrom said again: Shall he save his people in their sins? And Amulek answered and said unto him: I say unto you he shall not, for it is impossible for him to deny his word.

verse 34 Zeezrom, feeling that he has scored one victory, now attempts to trap Amulek again. Zeezrom asks the question: "Shall he save his people in their sins?" It is understandable that Zeezrom might ask this question since he was of the persuasion of the order of Nehor (see the commentary for Alma 8:9; Alma 14:16; Alma 15:15). Nehor had taught that all people would be saved, therefore there was no need for repentance or for fear and trembling over their sins (Alma 1:4; Alma 15:15). Perhaps he hoped to disguise the word "in" when he asked, "Shall he save his people in their sins?" Zeezrom was asking if God, by divine decree, can pardon sinners regardless of their failure to repent, simply because he wills it and wants it. Amulek immediately discerned his intent and answered in the negative "Ye cannot be saved in your sins" (verse 37). Amulek knew that the Savior would save his people from their sins, based on their repentance, and that he would not save his people in their sins. President John Taylor wrote: "It would be impossible for [God] to violate law, because in so doing he would strike at his own dignity, power, principles, glory, exaltation and existence" (Mediation and Atonement, 168).

35 Now Zeezrom said unto the people: See that ye remember these things; for he said there is but one God; yet he saith that the Son of God shall come, but he shall not save his people-as though he had authority to command God.

verse 35 Now believing that he has scored two victories over Amulek, Zeezrom says to the listeners, "See that ye remember these things." He then misquotes Amulek: "He saith that the Son of God shall come, but he shall not save his people." He also misconstrues Amulek's intent by adding, "As though he had authority to command God."

36 Now Amulek saith again unto him: Behold thou hast lied, for thou sayest that I spake as though I had authority to command God because I said he shall not save his people in their sins.

verse 36 Now Amulek takes the offensive. He first exposes Zeezrom's obvious distortion of the truth in accusing him of intending to "command God."

37 And I say unto you again that he cannot save them in their sins; for I cannot deny his word, and he hath said that no unclean thing can inherit the kingdom of heaven; therefore, how can ye be saved, except ye inherit the kingdom of heaven? Therefore, ye cannot be saved in your sins.

verse 37 Amulek then explains the important doctrinal error which those of the Order of the Nehors apparently espoused. If the reader wishes to review the essential elements of the atonement, please review the introductory commentary for Alma 5. The Savior cannot save people in their sins-that is while they are still unrepentant. He can save them from their sins. If man will come to him and repent, then he will extend the saving power of the atonement which will satisfy the law of justice (Helaman 5:10-11).

38 Now Zeezrom saith again unto him: Is the Son of God the very Eternal Father?

39 And Amulek said unto him: Yea, he is the very Eternal Father of heaven and of earth, and all things which in them are; he is the beginning and the end, the first and the last;

verses 38-39 Jesus Christ is God, the Creator or Father of heaven and earth. If we choose to refer to his other roles, then he is also the Son of God and the Savior of mankind. He is also the Eternal Father by the principle of divine investiture of authority and because he is the Father by adoption of those who accept the gospel (Mosiah 5:7).

40 And he shall come into the world to redeem his people; and he shall take upon him the transgressions of those who believe on his name; and these are they that shall have eternal life, and salvation cometh to none else.

verse 40 As in most every instance of the use of the word "salvation" in the Book of Mormon, the word here is identical in meaning to exaltation or eternal life.

"he shall take upon him the transgressions of those who believe on his name" All men, even those slow to repent, will benefit from his atonement. Only those who repent in a timely fashion and come to believe on his name, however, will enjoy the full benefits of the atonement-exaltation in the celestial kingdom.

"and salvation cometh to none else" We are again reminded of an absolute truth: Of the billions of people who have lived on earth, not one will be saved in a kingdom of glory lest he accept Jesus Christ and sincerely repent.

verses 41-45 What are the unconditional benefits of the atonement which will be extended without exception to every man and woman born into mortality? They are: (1) All will be resurrected, and (2) All will be brought back into the presence of God to be judged. The unworthy, of course, will not remain in the presence of God.

41 Therefore the wicked remain as though there had been no redemption made, except it be the loosing of the bands of death; for behold, the day cometh that all shall rise from the dead and stand before God, and be judged according to their works.

42 Now, there is a death which is called a temporal death; and the death of Christ shall loose the bands of this temporal death, that all shall be raised from this temporal death.

verse 42 The "temporal death" was, of course, brought upon all men because of Adam's transgression. The phrase "bands of death" refers to the concept that death would hold all people captive forever if Jesus Christ had not triumphed over it through the Atonement. This expression may also refer to the bands of spiritual death (see Alma 5:7-10; Alma 5:13).

43 The spirit and the body shall be reunited again in its perfect form; both limb and joint shall be restored to its proper frame, even as we now are at this time; and we shall be brought to stand before God, knowing even as we know now, and have a bright recollection of all our guilt.

verse 43 "The spirit and the body shall be reunited again in its perfect form . . . even as we now are at this time" The construction of the phrase seems awkward since the two nouns "spirit and the body" are the antecedents of the singular pronoun "its." In the church today, we have a singular name for the combination of the spirit and body. It is the soul of man (D&C 88:15). In this phrase the "spirit and the body" are obviously regarded as a single entity, the soul.

The exact process and sequence in which the resurrection will occur may not be as yet fully revealed to us. However, this verse is helpful.

One feature of the doctrine of the resurrection is ambiguous. Is it a one-step process or a gradual process? For a discussion of this ambiguity, see Ye Shall Know of the Doctrine, volume 3, chapter 9, The Judgments. See particularly the subtitle "What is the role of the resurrection in the final judgment of us all-two views of resurrection?" under "The Great Final Judgment" in that chapter.

The "gradual" school of thought feels that at the instant of our resurrection, our body will be just as it was at our death. Joseph Smith taught: "As concerning the resurrection, I will merely say that all men will come from the grave as they lie down, whether old or young; there will not be 'added unto their stature one cubit,' neither taken from it; all will be raised by the power of God, having spirit in their bodies, and not blood" (TPJS, 199-200). President Joseph F. Smith added: "The body will come forth as it is laid to rest, for there is not growth or development in the grave. As it is laid down, so will it arise, and changes to perfection will come by the law of restitution" (Improvement Era, June 1904). President Joseph Fielding Smith later explained that this law of restitution will act "almost instantly" (Doctrines of Salvation, 2:293-94). Perhaps following the resurrection, within moments, our body will be restored to a state of immortal perfection and will be quickened by that glory which we are to inherit (D&C 88:28). According to the "gradual" theory, those who die as children will be resurrected as children and will subsequently grow to adulthood.

"and we shall be brought to stand before God" This standing before the judgment bar of God appears to be an eternal ordinance of the gospel. Perhaps he will not really render a judgment at that moment since that judgment may have already been made. We will stand before him clothed in the body that will reflect that judgment. The body we will possess on that occasion will be a celestial one or a terrestrial or telestial one. Or it may be a body characteristic of those who will live forever with Satan. He will at that time apparently pronounce our eternal destiny and confirm the validity and justice of our eternal fate.

"knowing even as we know now, and have a bright recollection of all our guilt" Brightness connotes vividness and precision. We will all at that moment be acutely aware of the fairness and justice of the judgment which has been rendered. Elder Neal A. Maxwell expanded our understanding of this "bright recollection":

At the judgment we will not only have the Book of Mormon's prophesied "bright recollection" and "perfect remembrance" of our misdeeds (see Alma 5:18; Alma 11:43). The joyous things will be preserved too. . . . Among the "all things [that] shall be restored" (Alma 40:23) will be memory, including eventually the memory of premortal events and conditions. What a flood of feeling and fact will come to us when, at a time a loving God deems wise, this faculty is restored! Surely it will increase our gratefulness for God's long-suffering and for Jesus's atonement! Hence one of the great blessings of immortality and eternal life will be the joy of our being connected again with the memories of both the first and the second estates (Men and Women of Christ, 132).

44 Now, this restoration shall come to all, both old and young, both bond and free, both male and female, both the wicked and the righteous; and even there shall not so much as a hair of their heads be lost; but every thing shall be restored to its perfect frame, as it is now, or in the body, and shall be brought and be arraigned before the bar of Christ the Son, and God the Father, and the Holy Spirit, which is one Eternal God, to be judged according to their works, whether they be good or whether they be evil.

verse 44 The phrase "or in the body" is a reiteration of the phrase "as it is now." Every thing shall be restored to our bodies just as those things are now. Again, might the complete sequence consist of an initial resurrection to a state just as we were before our death. Then the "restitution" spoken of by Joseph Fielding Smith above might occur within moments following the judgment. Our eternal body will then be changed to a state commensurate with the eternal kingdom in which we will live.

"the bar of Christ the Son, and God the Father, and the Holy Spirit" Here are named the three members of the godhead: Christ the Son, God the Father, and the Holy Ghost. Can there be any doubt that Amulek understood the nature of the godhead?

The judgment bar of God is here referred to as "the bar of Christ the Son, and God the Father, and the Holy Spirit, which is one Eternal God" We are taught in the scriptures that the Father has committed all judgment unto the Son (John 5:22; 2 Nephi 9:41). Elder Bruce R. McConkie explained:

The scriptural assertion that all men "shall be brought and be arraigned before the bar of Christ the Son, and God the Father, and the Holy Spirit, which is one Eternal God, to judged according to their works, whether they be good or whether they be evil" means simply that Christ's judicial decisions are those of the other two members of the Godhead because all three are perfectly united as one. The ancient Twelve and the Nephite Twelve, and no doubt others similarly empowered, will sit in judgment, under Christ, on selected portions of the house of Israel; but their decrees will be limited to those who love the Lord and have kept his commandments, 'and none else' (D&C 29:12; 3 Nephi 27:27; Matthew 19:28)" (The Promised Messiah, 215-16).

"which is one Eternal God" See the commentary for Mormon 7:7.

45 Now, behold, I have spoken unto you concerning the death of the mortal body, and also concerning the resurrection of the mortal body. I say unto you that this mortal body is raised to an immortal body, that is from death, even from the first death unto life, that they can die no more; their spirits uniting with their bodies, never to be divided; thus the whole becoming spiritual and immortal, that they can no more see corruption.

verse 45 It is likely that most readers will read through this verse without realizing its importance. Consider for a moment that those who have read the entire Bible have never read an explanation or a definition of the concept of resurrection. The term "resurrection" is never mentioned in the Old Testament, and the only definition we have in the New Testament was given by Paul and is incomplete at best. Paul taught: "So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption: It is sown in dishonor; it is raised in glory: it is sown in weakness; it is raised in power: It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body" (1 Corinthians 15:42-44). Here in verse 45 we have quite a clear definition of resurrection (see also Alma 40:23).

"thus the whole becoming spiritual and immortal, that they can no more see corruption" The word spiritual means not subject to death. Corruption means mortal, of the world, subject to death.

46 Now, when Amulek had finished these words the people began again to be astonished, and also Zeezrom began to tremble. And thus ended the words of Amulek, or this is all that I have written.

verse 46 In Zeezrom we again encounter an individual who, in spite of his worldly and wicked ways, was probably a choice individual in the pre-mortal world. We see evidence in this verse that the Spirit was beginning to reach him and that he was responsive to the Spirit.

"this is all that I have written" Here is a reminder that Mormon is the first person and is doing the redacting.

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